A Complete Note On Field Epidemiology-For BPH/MPH
- Field epidemiology is practice or application of epidemiology to control and prevent health problems
- Act when problem is acute and unexpected and when quick action is required
- High levels of community concern
- Involvement of the press
- Political pressure
- Field epidemiology involves the application of epidemiologic methods to unexpected health problems when a rapid on-site investigation is necessary for timely intervention.
- Field epidemiology describes in simple and practical terms the distinct approach, tasks, and actions needed for successful field investigations.
- Guidance is given on such issues as how to perform surveillance, manage and execute field investigations, collect and analyze data, perform surveys, adapt a personal computer for field use, and communicate the findings.
- Specific advice is also given on such subjects as dealing with the media; investigations in healthcare, day-care, and international settings; and the legal aspects of field studies.
- Field epidemiology gives public health professionals and students a practical and complete reference to use in virtually any field investigation setting.
- Project proposal is simply a basic document containing the explanation of all activities to be performed while undertaking an intervention development project or research work.
- In other word, it is a written document prepared to do something in a pre-planned way with a view to successfully carries out the proposed assignment.
- It explains about the problem to be studied its significance and the methodology to be followed.
- The proposals also explain the techniques of analysis of the facts that are collected in the process of study.
- Generally, a project proposal should satisfactorily answer the following questions.
- It explain about the problem to be studied its significance and the methodology to be followed.
- The proposal also explain the techniques of analysis of the facts that are collected in the process of study.
- Generally, a project proposal should satisfactorily answer the following questions.
Questions that we want answers
- What we are proposing to do ?
- Why we are proposing to do?
- How and when we are planning to do?
- How much and what type of resources are used or needed
- How much is it going to cost
- How much time is needed to conduct proposing study.
Steps of Proposal Writing
Universities and other institutions may have different requirements regarding the style and content of study proposal.
- Formulating study problem
- Statement of problem
- Significance of the problem
- Literatures review
- Hypothesis formulation
- The work plan (Activities & Time)
- Monitoring and Supervision
- Personnel involved
- Budget planning
Formulating study problem
- Formulating a study problem is the first and most important steps in the study process. A study problem identifies researcher’s destination and decide what he want to find out.
- The best way of understanding the problem is to discus it with one’s own colleagues or with those having some expertise in the matter.
- In an academic institution the researcher can seek the help from a guide who is usually an experienced person and has several study problems in mind.
- The abstract should be written in about 200 words, it contents brief synopsis of activities to be carried out in the study. It helps to understand the frame of study activities for the reader.
- The background may provide general idea about formulating problem and linked between present situation and past experiences. Its orient the reader to what is already know about the topic of study and demonstration of the researchers command of current knowledge in that specific topic or field.
Statement of the problem
- There are some points are pointed, which are considered at the time of proposal writing.
- Problems are stated in brief and concise
- Justify that problem is worth studying
- State the possible solution
- Should be topic of interest to the reviewer
- Suggest the significance of that particular study.
Significance of the study
- The significance of the study tries to state the importance how the proposed study would make contribution for development of knowledge, skill and attitude towards proposed title in both theoretical and empirical aspects.
- The objectives clarifies and narrows the focus of the study. It identifies why the study being conducted. While writing objectives, it must be consistent to the topic of study.
- Objective setting lets itself be the most challenging job while developing any proposal.
- The usual practice of setting objective is either; general objective or specific objectives
Objective should be SMART
- A literature review is a written summary of articles, books and other documents that describe the past and current state ok knowledge about topic.
- Literature review helps to direct one’s thinking and moves one towards developing specific research question to be possible answered.
- A review of the literature is typically the first place to start looking for research topics. This is particularly helpful when researchers (students) have a general topic area in mind but not a specific research question.
- Remember, all research starts with a question. As a researcher or student is reviewing articles on a topic of interest, it is a good idea to have a notepad nearby with a page titled “Questions.” When questions come to mind during the reading, they can then be written on the notepad.
- For example, a study may have been completed with a small number of participants, and questions arose of whether the same results would be obtained with a larger sample. Both modified replication studies and strict replication studies are valid research and can serve as excellent theses or dissertations.
Formulating the Hypotheses
- A hypotheses a formal statement that predicts a single research outcome. A hypotheses is the researcher’s educated guess predicting the results of the research findings.
- Hypotheses is always developed in response to the purpose statement or to answer the research question.
Qualities of workable hypothesis
- The hypothesis state a relationship between at least two variables
- The hypothesis not be vague or general. It should be specific and simple
- The hypothesis should be properly experiment
- A hypothesis has to be tested and verified
- Hypothesis should be clear and based on theory which has already been evolved
- The hypothesis should be stated in the present time
- All hypotheses written for a study must be tested. There are two types of hypotheses;
- Alternative hypothesis: setup hypothesis-Hypothesis is stated when the researcher has no reason to believe that a difference or relationship exit in any direction.
- Null hypothesis: test hypothesis-If a hypothesis usually tested it is a established hypothesis and stated that there is no difference between the group being state.
- Alternative hypothesis: There is a positive relationship between net using practice and malaria infection in Terai districts of Nepal. H1
- Null hypothesis: There is no relationship between net using practice and malaria infection in Terai districts of Nepal. H0
- Under the methodology, following sub-titles are listing below
- Study design
- Study area and population
- Sampling and Sample selection
- Study variables
- Data collection
- Data analysis
- The selection of a research strategy is the core of the research design
- The research design is the overall plans of research strategy which guide to process of the research activities.
- The research design is the master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information
- Qualitative study design to answer questions about the complex nature of phenomena with the propose of describing, explaining, and understanding the phenomena being studied.
- Qualitative study include interpretative, constructivist, post-positive, and natural.
- A health education example of a qualitative study might use participants in the same diet programs, where researcher want to knew why people want to lose body fat
Study area and population
- Study area: Place where study is going to conduct, describing about that particular area with respect to interest of topic
- Study population: Target population, who are the subject of the study. Describe about study population situation and characteristics regarding on interest of topic
Sampling and Sample selection
- There are different process of sampling methods;
- Probability sampling
- Non-probability sampling
- Simple random sampling
- Systematic random sampling
- Cluster sampling
- Multi cluster sampling
- Quota sampling
Sampling and Sample selection
- n=Z2apq /d2
- n = desired sample
- Za = Standard normal deviate usually set at 1.96 which corresponds to 95% confidence interval (value for a error)
- P = proportion of students having a particular characteristic (as there is no reasonable estimate, then we should use 50%)
- q = 1-p
- D = degree of accuracy desired, usually set at 0.05%
- n = (1.96) 2 x (0.5) (0.5)/ (0.05) 2
- Here sample size requirement=384 approximately
- To make for incomplete and inconsistent responses, the sample size was increased by 10% making it 400.
- Dependent variables
- Independent Variable
- Dependent variables are those variables that we have little or no direct control over, yet we have a strong interest in.
- Examples Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on HIV/AIDS.
- Independent variables are those variables which the researcher has control over and wishes to manipulate.
- For example: level of Education, Media exposure, Income, Risk behaviour, Age, Occupation, etc.
- Lab equipment’s
- Process contains four interdependent elements
- Defining a research methods
- Defining and constituting the sample
- Choosing and preparing Data collection tools
- Evaluating the tools-pre test
Strategies for data collection
- When conducting survey research there are essentially five different strategies for collecting data;
- Mailed questionnaires
- Personal interviews
- Telephone surveys
- Group administration
- Electronic questionnaires
- Considering the goal and objectives, research questions and resources, the important things is to investigate all the facets of the situation or problems in question
- Decide on the type of information needed (precise data, perceptions, opinions)
- Entered into a database
- Editing and coding
- Computer software used; dBase IV, SPSS, Epi, Epinfo, STATA, Excel
- Frequencies and cross- tabulations
- Selection of analytical techniques
- Detailed plan for higher-level statistical analysis, such as logistic regression will be prepared once the descriptive analysis is carried out (if relevant).
- The focused group discussion notes will be compiled in a grid table format. This grid table will comprise of a set of codes and associated key themes to triangulate information within the groups.
Following points will be checked during pre-testing.
- Clarity of the language used
- The validity and the reliability of the way instruments will be used
- Accuracy of translation
- Availability of the sample need for full study
- Work schedule
- Desire to participation
- The entire task of launching Baseline study in two districts and submission of the draft report will be completed in approximately two calendar months. The following table shows the time frame for the activities of the survey.
- One day Meeting with support agency Management
- 7 days Literature review and document study
- 21 days Field survey
- 15 days Compilation of the survey report
- 5 days Submit first draft for feedback and suggestions
- 5 days Incorporate feedback and suggestion if required
- 3 days Submit final report
- One day Dissimilation of the report
- One day Post survey meeting
- A briefing seminar to disseminate the Survey Report may be organized at or after conclusion of the survey inviting representatives from Government, Non-Government and International Agencies.
- There will be a detailed analytical report in English. The report will be organized in three main chapters. The first chapter will describe background, objectives and methodology of the study. Second main chapters will present the results of the study (this section may be divided into three or four sub-sections). Finally (in Chapter 3), summary, conclusions and policy and programme recommendations will be presented.
- After the finalization of the report, there would be post evaluation meeting at JICA where the Team Leader will present the outcomes of the survey .Electronic and hard copies of the report and electronic copy of the cleaned data set and raw data along with codebook and description on data editing will be submitted to ….(supporter/university guide)
१स्वास्थ्यकर्मीलाई अध्ययन बिदा सम्बन्धि के छ ब्यबस्था ? कस्तो प्रक्रिया र कागजातहरु चाहिन्छन ?
२कोभिड-१९ खोप सम्बन्धि बारम्बार सोधिने प्रश्नहरू र तिनका उत्तरहरु
३संघ तथा प्रदेश स्वास्थ्य तालिम केन्द्रको कार्य बिवरण (TOR)
४स्वास्थ्यकर्मी लाई स्तरबृदीको फाराम भर्न अनुरोध : उपत्यका बाहिरकाले पालिकामा बुझाउनुपर्ने /(पूर्ण बिवरण)
५भेरो सेल खोप प्रयोग तथा संचालन सम्बन्धि अन्तरिम मार्गदर्शन २०७८
६भेरो सेल खोपको बारेमा पूर्ण जानकारी /(परिचय,प्रयोग,प्रभावकारीता, प्रस्तुतीकरण समेटिएको)
१निर्माणाधीन स्वास्थ्य सेवा केन्द्रलाई अर्थको १ अर्ब ८ करोड बजेट निकासा
१कोभिड-१९ खोप सम्बन्धि बारम्बार सोधिने प्रश्नहरू र तिनका उत्तरहरु
१संघ तथा प्रदेश स्वास्थ्य तालिम केन्द्रको कार्य बिवरण (TOR)
१स्वास्थ्यकर्मी लाई स्तरबृदीको फाराम भर्न अनुरोध : उपत्यका बाहिरकाले पालिकामा बुझाउनुपर्ने /(पूर्ण बिवरण)
१भेरो सेल खोप प्रयोग तथा संचालन सम्बन्धि अन्तरिम मार्गदर्शन २०७८
१भेरो सेल खोपको बारेमा पूर्ण जानकारी /(परिचय,प्रयोग,प्रभावकारीता, प्रस्तुतीकरण समेटिएको)
१स्वास्थ्यकर्मी तथा स्वास्थ्य संस्थाको सुरक्षा सम्बन्धी अध्यादेश जारि : स्वास्थ्यकर्मीमाथि कुटपिट गरेमा ५ लाख जरिवाना र पाँच बर्ष कैद(पूर्ण पाठ )
१प्रसुती बिदा सम्बन्धि महिला कर्मचारीहरुका नेपालमा कस्तो ब्यबस्था छन् ? (कानुनका कुरा सहित पूर्ण पाठ)
१जेरियाट्रिक (ज्येष्ठ नागरिक) स्वास्थ्य सेवा सञ्चालन निर्देशिका, २०७७
१Asian Development Bank – Japan Scholarship Program at University of Auckland 2022
१WORKSHOP ON SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META ANALYSIS-NHRC
१WHO Free Online Course: COVID-19 Operational Planning Guidelines
१अस्पताल तथा स्वास्थ्य संस्थाको न्युनतम सेवा मापदण्ड कार्यन्वयन २०७७
१Yunus & Youth Global Fellowship Program for Social Entrepreneurs 2021
१कोभिशिल्ड खोपको दोस्रो डोज लगाउन ढिला भए के हुन्छ ?
१Health Care Waste Management Guideline 2014
१कोभिड तेस्रो लहरको जोखिममा बालबालिका : कम्तिमा २० प्रतिशत शय्या छुट्याउन मन्त्रालयको निर्देशन
१फेरी कुटिए स्वास्थ्यकर्मी : स्यानीटाईजर खन्याएर टाउकोमा आगो लगाइदिन्छु भन्दै हातपात /
१कोभिडको बिस्तृत बिवरण प्रविष्ट गर्ने IMU मा कसरी Account बनाउने ? (पूर्ण पाठ समेटिएको )
१अमेरिकाद्धारा नेपाललाई ठूलो संख्यामा कोरोनाबिरुद्धको खोप दिने घोषणा : सबै नेपालीले खोप पाउने /
१Black Fungus(Mucormycosis) Nepali Treatment Guidelines and More Details.
१स्वास्थ्य संस्था सञ्चालन सम्वन्धी मापदण्ड, २०७७
१कोरोना संक्रमितको मृत्यु भएपछि भेरी अस्पतालका स्वास्थ्यकर्मि कुटिए ! ज्यान जोगाउन एक तला माथिबाट हाम फाले स्वास्थ्यकर्मी !
१कोरोना संगै अर्को डरलाग्दो महामारी : ब्ल्याक फंगस ! के हो ‘ब्ल्याक फंगस’ ? कसरी बच्न सकिन्छ ?
१नेपालमा स्वास्थ्य आपत्कालको घोषणा भए के हुन्छ ?कुन कुन क्षेत्रमा कस्तो प्रभाव रहन्छ ?
१औषधि व्यवस्था विभाग द्वारा ६१ कम्पनीका गुणस्तरीय स्यानिटाजर् प्रयोग गर्न अनुरोध /
१अस्पतालमा कोभिड केयर युनिट भएका नेपाल भरिका अस्पतालहरुको बिवरण /
१कोभिड-१९ परिक्षणका लागि नेपाल सरकारले तोकेका प्रयोगशालाहरु (पछिल्लो अपडेट समेटिएको)
१कोभिड-१९ रोकथाम सुक्ष्म योजना
१नेपाल स्वास्थ्य सेवा ऐन, २०५३ (पछिल्लो संसोधन सहित)
१नेसनल हेल्थ केयरले रेमडिसिभिर औषधि उत्पादन अनुमति पायो /
१देश कै त्यस्तो पालिका जस्ले दियो स्वास्थ्यकर्मी लाई ७०% भत्ता /(पत्र सहित)
१स्थानीय तहमा कामकाजमा खटाउने कार्य स्थगन गरिएको बारे सामान्यको सूचना /
१स्वास्थ्य सेवा ऐन, २०५३ र स्वास्थ्य सेवा नियमावली, २०५५ परिमार्जन सम्बन्धी सूचना
१सरकारले गर्यो स्थानीय तहको वर्गीकरण : तपाई बसेको ठाउ दुर्गम कि सुगम ?(७५३ तहको विवरण)
१स्वास्थ्यको स्तरबृद्दी सम्बन्धि स्वास्थ्य सेवा बिभागको सूचना २०७६
१प्राथामीक स्वास्थ्य केन्द्र (PHC) को परिमार्जित नयाँ दरबन्दी संरचना २०७६
१कर्मचारी समायोजन,सरुवा,बढुवा र रमाना भए पछी भर्ने पारिवारिक दैनिक भ्रमण भत्ता सम्बन्धि अभिलेख फारम ९०६ (साबिकको -१८९)
१Vaccines and antibiotics