Overview

  1. Basic of preparatory/general sciences (Physics biochemistry, zoology, Botany)- 5%
  2. General Anatomy and Physiology (organ system)- 10 %
  3. Ocular Anatomy and Physiology – 10%
  4. Ocular Pharmacology – 10%
  5. Ocular Pathology – 10%
  6. Systemic Disease and Eye – 5%
  7. Binocular Single Vision and its abnormalities – 5%
  8. Optics and Refraction- 5%
  9. Investigative Ophthalmology – 5%
  10. Ophthalmic Nursing Care and Operation Theatre Management – 10%
  11. Ocular Surgery Assisting – 10%
  12. Community Ophthalmology- 10%
  13. Code of Ethics – 5%
    Total 100%

Details

  1. Basic of preparatory/general sciences (Physics biochemistry, zoology, Botany)
    This includes essential knowledge
    Laws of reflection and refraction, Refractive index
    Types of chemical bond.
    Characteristics of acids, bases and salts.
    Antacids and antabases and their medical uses
    Structure (Linear Cyclic) of glucose,
    Functions of Carbohydrates
    Introduction of lipid, fat and oil and their natural sources.
    types of tissues
    muscular tissue and its types, striated, smooth and
    cardiac muscles of animals.
    Nervous tissue and its types.
    Morphology of fungal plant
    Characteristics of a virus
  2. General Anatomy and Physiology (Systems of the Body)
    This includes general concepts of anatomy and physiology of human body:
    Anatomical terms,
    Accessory organs and glands of the skin.
    Structures and functions of the heart, Components and function of the blood.
    Terms related to the skeletal system : axial ,appendicular ,articular cartilage
    ,diaphysis, epiphysis fontanel , hematopoiesis , periosteum
    Classifications of joints,
    structure and Divisions of the central nervous system:Classifications of neurons and
    neuralgia
    self-healing nature of body cells and tissues.
    Physiological terms: Cardiovascular, Digestion ,Excretion ,Organ ,Peritoneal
    ,Pericardial ,Thoracic Visceral ,Homeostasis
    Factors affecting growth and repair. Coagulation factors.
    Cranial nerves and their function
    Measurement of pulse and blood pressure
  3. Ocular Anatomy and Physiology
    This includes general concepts of basic knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the eye. This includes :
    Embryology of the eye
    Anatomy along with blood and nerve supply of eye lids and adnexa, conjunctiva,
    cornea, sclera, uveal tract, lens, vitreous humor, retina, angle structure
    Physiology of the cornea, aqueous humour, metabolism of cornea, lens and vitreous
    Anatomy of orbit and its walls
    Anatomy of extraocular muscles
    Anatomy and functions of cranial nerves related to eye
    Anatomy of lacrimal drainage systems
    Formation and drainage of aqueous humour
    Anatomy and physiology of visual pathway
    Anatomy of pupillary pathway and pupillary reflex
  4. Ocular Pharmacology
    This includes concepts on pharmacology with special reference to eye. Selection of appropriate drugs for specific disease/conditions, their actions, indications,
     contraindications and side effects.
    This includes
    Pharmacological terminologies like half life, plasma concentration of drug,
    bioavailability, shelf life, expiry date
    Concepts of pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics
    Routes of administration of drugs
    Mechanism of action, indication, contraindication, side effects precautions of:
    Different types of antibiotics, their mechanism of action and spectrum of activity
    Drugs used in gastrointestinal systems, respiratory system, cardiovascular system,
    Central Nervous System
    Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs: Mechanism of action, indication,
    contraindication, side effects and precautions
    Steroidal drugs
    Nutritional Supplements
    Antihistamines and allergic
    Mydriatics and Cycloplegics
    Miotics and Antiglaucoma drugs
    Lubricating drugs
  5. Ocular Pathology
    This includes different aspects of ocular pathology with special reference to eye. Includes:
    Microbiology
    Morphology, classification, structure of bacteria, virus, fungus, parasites
    Epidemiology, mode of infection, pathogenicity, laboratory diagnosis of common
    bacteria, virus, fungus, parasites
    Culture media of bacteria, fungus
    Different staining techniques, antibiotic susceptibility testing
    General composition of blood, types of blood cells with their function
    Total Leucocyte count, Differential Leucocyte count with their normal values
    Different methods of sterilization and disinfection
  6. Systemic Disease of the eye
    This includes ideas of disease in general medicine related to the eyes. This includes
    Diabetes Mellitus and its effects on eye
    Hypertension and its effects on eye
    Thyroid Eye Disease and its effects on eye
    Vitamin A deficiency and its effects on eye
    Tuberculosis
    Leprosy
    Syphilis
    Gonorrhea
    Rubella
    Toxoplasmosis
    HIV/AIDS
  7. Binocular Single Vision and its abnormalities
    This includes identification and management of different binocular vision abnormalities. This includes:
    Understand the function of EOM
    Different types of eye movement
    Accommodation: Introduction, anomalies and assessment
    Latent and Manifest misalignment of the eyes
    Motor and Sensory adaptation to strabismus
    Basic Tests in Orthoptics setting
    Hirschberg and Krimsky test
    Cover test and its types
    Test of convergence and accommodative problems
    Test for suppression
    Test for stereopsis
    Test for Prism Fusion range
    Amblyopia and its management
  8. Optics and Refraction
    This includes basic knowledge of optics and refraction, understanding of the light and its clinical implications, different optical condition of the eye. This includes
    Light, its nature and interaction with reflective and refractive medium
    Cardinal points
    Schematic Eye
    Lens design options in minus and plus lens
    Meniscus lens, Lenticular lens and Myodisc
    Manufacturing of Ophthalmic lenses
    Properties of Ophthalmic lens
    Lens aberrations
    Myopia and its classification based on etiology
    Hyperopia and classification based on etiology
    Astigmatism and types of astigmatism
    Accommodation and its physiology
    Presbyopia and its classification
    Parts of retinoscope, optical priniciple, reflex characteristics and procedure
    Techniques of subjective refraction and its importance
    Specifying lens power, prescription writing and power verification
  9. Investigative Ophthalmology
    This includes different investigation procedures for specific eye problems and interpretation the findings of the investigations. This includes
    Visual acuity (near and distance)
    Colour vision and contrast sensitivity assessment
    Intraocular pressure
    Visual field
    Ultrasonography
    FFA
    Anterior segment and fundus photography
    Exophthalmometry
    Pachymetry
    Keratometry
    Gonioscopy
    Direct Ophthalmoscopy
    Indirect Ophthalmoscopy
    Slit lamp bio microscopy
    Biometry
  10. Ophthalmic Nursing Care and Operation Theatre Management
    This includes basic ophthalmic nursing procedure required to perform during, after and before surgery. This includes
    Respiration: definition, types, characteristics, factors affecting temperature, pulse,
    respiration and blood pressure
    Principles, Techniques and Measurement of temperature, pulse, respiration and
    blood pressure
    Objective of Operation Theatre
    Operation Theatre management and aseptic technique
    Trolley preparation in different eye surgery
    Scrub and circulation
    OT Hazards and risk management
    Definition, types of ocular anesthesia, equipment
    Management of recovery patient
    Pre and post operative management of different types of ocular surgery
    Routes of administration of drugs
  11. Ocular Surgery Assisting
    This includes knowledge and skills on ocular surgical procedures to assist the ophthalmologist. Includes:
    Instruments, step, consumable and medicines in
    cataract surgery
    glaucoma surgery
    nasolacrimal passage surgery
    Strabismus surgery
    Keratoplasty surgery
    Vitro-retinal surgery
    Lid surgery
    Orbitotomy surgery
    Enucleation, evisceration and extentration surgery
    Excisional biopsy
    Electroepilation
    Pterygium excision and conjunctival graft
    Preparation of patient, surgical area, step of surgery, possible complication and
    management of extra ocular surgeries
    Trolley preparation, consumable and post operative management of
    Entropion
    Chalazion
    lid laceration repair
    incision and drainage of lid abscess and externum
  12. Community Ophthalmology
    This includes planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating the eye health and interventions in defined population. Developing tools to assess the magnitude of eye problem, calculating disease burden and making conversation with current national and global eye health strategies and planning on eye health. This includes
    Concept of health given by Alma-Ata declaration/WHO
    Primary health care, its definition and elements
    Measuring disease burden in community (Magnitude, prevalence, incidence)
    Concepts, Importance, Components of community participation
    Health/Eye health status indicators
    Basic Health profile of Nepal
    Prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Nepal
    Calculation of WHO standard of visual outcome
    Sustainable Development Goals
    WHO action Plan
    WHO and IAPB eye health strategies at global and regional level
  13. Code of Ethics
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